Sokoine University of Agriculture

Radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta)

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dc.contributor.author Makungu, M.
dc.contributor.author du Plessis, W. M.
dc.contributor.author Barrows, M.
dc.contributor.author Groenewald, H. B.
dc.contributor.author Koeppel, K. N.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-11T13:45:28Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-11T13:45:28Z
dc.date.issued 2016-06
dc.identifier.issn 1937-2825
dc.identifier.uri http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/2506
dc.description.abstract The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Association of Zoo Veterinarians en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries 47(2):573-585;
dc.subject Abdomen en_US
dc.subject Anatomy en_US
dc.subject Lemur catta en_US
dc.subject Radiography en_US
dc.subject Ring-tailed lemur en_US
dc.subject Ultrasound en_US
dc.title Radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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